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Satellite Communications: Earth Station Design & Analysis

Onsite Training: Satellite Communications
  • Course:Satellite Communications: Earth Station Design & Analysis
  • Course ID:SATCOM5D Duration:5 days Private Class
  • Available as a private, customized course for your group at your offices or ours and in some cases as a WebLive(TM) class.

  • Download Course Description (PDF)

Course Outline

Module I—Digital Communications for Geosynchronous Satellites

 

  • Digital vs. Analog
    • Network Components and Topologies
    • Switching Terminology
    • Digital/Analog Comparison
  • Line Codes:  Bit Rate, Baud Rate and Bandwidth
    • Harry Nyquist and Claude Shannon
    • Bandwidth and Bit rate at Baseband
    • Line Code Variations
  • Voice Encoding Techniques:  Bandwidth vs. Latency
    • Waveform Encoding
      • Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
      • Adaptive Differential PCM
      • Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation
    • Source Coding
      • Linear Predictive Coding
      • Code-book Excited Linear Prediction (CELP)
    • Voice Coding Issues over Satellites
  • Digital Communications Protocols
    • Overview of Protocol Layers
    • Physical Layer Aggregation and Switching Protocols
      • Standards-based TDM:  T-carriers and E-carriers
      • Proprietary TDM:  Aggregate Rate Multiplexing
      • Digital Cross-Connect Switching (DCS)
      • Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment (DCME)
    • Data Link Layer Protocols and Equipment
      • Frame Relay FRADs and Switches
      • ATM and Negative Latency
    • Network Layer Devices and Functions
  • Network Timing and Synchronization
    • Timing Terminology and Concepts
    • Stratum Levels and Timing Architectures

 

Module II—Geosynchronous Satellites

 

  • Satellite Communications Overview
    • A Brief History of Satellite Communications
    • Overview of Earth Station Sub-systems
  • Geosynchronous Satellites:  Strengths and Weaknesses
    • Common Satellite Deployments
    • Problems Caused by Long Path Delays
      • Need for Echo Cancellation
      • Perceptible Delay in Conversation
      • Talk Collisions over Double-hops
      • Reduction in Throughput When Using Protocols That Require Acknowledgement and Re-transmission
    • Problems Caused by Relative Satellite Motion
      • Doppler Shift of High-speed Data Streams
      • Tracking Requirements due to Satellite Inclination
  • Overview of Satellite Access Techniques
    • FDMA for Digital and Analog Access
    • TDMA and F/TDMA for Digital Access

 

Module III—Earth Station Equipment

 

  • A Quick Review of Decibels
    • Logarithms and Their Functions
    • Using Decibels for Small and Large Ratios and Values
    • When NOT to use Decibels
  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • Frequency vs. Wavelength
    • Band Designations
    • Radar Bands Common to Satellite Communications
  • Radio Building Blocks
    • Basics of Radio Amplifiers
    • Filter Types and Functions
    • Type of Oscillators (Sources)
    • Mixers and Multipliers
  • Earth Station Uplink Equipment
    • Upconverter Types and Characteristics
    • Typical Upconverter Specifications
    • Amplifier Types and Characteristics
    • Amplifier Impairments Due to Non-linearity
      • Intermodulation Distortion
      • Spectral Regrowth
    • Typical Amplifier Specifications
    • Post-Amplifier Combining Techniques
      • Wide-band Signal Combining
      • Frequency-specific Signal Combining
    • Transmission Line Characteristics
  • Antennas and Tracking Systems
    • Antenna Types
    • Antenna Patterns and Gain Calculations
    • Antenna Polarization Techniques
      • Linear Polarization Concept
      • Circular Polarization Concept
      • Comparison of Linear and Circular Polarization
    • Typical Antenna specifications
    • Antenna Tracking Systems
      • Step-tracking Systems
      • Mono-pulse Tracking Systems
  • Earth Station Downlink Equipment
    • The Low Noise Amplifier:  The Heart of the Receive System
      • LNA Types
      • LNA Characteristics
      • Typical LNA Specifications
    • Downconverter Characteristics
  • Modems and Error Correction
    • Modulation:  Digital and Analog
    • Basics of Digital Modulation
      • Modulation Scheme Constellations
      • Noise and Errors and Free Distance
      • C/N and Eb/N0 Calculations
    • Error Correction Techniques
      • Block Coding
      • Convolutional Coding
    • Modem Variations
      • Coherent vs. Differential Demodulation
      • Offset QPSK for PAPR Improvement
    • Timing Considerations for Satellite Links
      • Loop Timing Systems
      • Master/Slave Timing Systems
      • Doppler Buffers for High Data Rates
    • Important Modem Characteristics and Specifications
  • Thermal Noise and C/N
    • Quantifying Noise
    • Determining the C/N
    • Adding the Uplink C/N and the Downlink C/N
  • Power and M&C Systems
    • System Components and Alarm Types
    • Critical and Technical Power Systems

 

Module IV—Earth Station Design

 

  • A Comparison of Access Techniques
    • Dedicated Carrier Access
    • Demand Assigned Multiple Access
      • FDMA
      • TDMA
      • F/TDMA
    • Access Technique Selection Criteria
    • Cost Analysis: FDMA vs. TDMA
    • Hub-spoke vs. Mesh Networks
  • Uplink Design Considerations
    • Antenna gain and efficiency
    • Earth Station EIRP
    • Earth Station Gains and Losses
    • Setting Uplink levels
  • Downlink Design Considerations
    • Downlink Levels
    • Internal and External Noise Contributions
    • Noise Figure and Noise temperature
    • Performing a Cascade Analysis
    • G/T Contributing Factors
    • Performing a Detailed G/T Analysis
  • Determining System Availability
    • Equipment Configuration
    • Sparing strategy
    • Equipment reliability
    • Link Availability and rain fade

 

Module V—Link Analysis Techniques

 

  • Overview of Link Analysis
    • Limiting Factors
    • Satellite Transponder Parameters
    • Earth Terminal Parameters
    • Operational Parameters
  • Spreading Loss and Path Loss
    • Determining Distance to Satellite
    • Determining Power Flux Density at Satellite
    • Free Space Loss
    • Other Loss Contributions
      • Pointing Loss
      • Polarization Offset Loss
  • Satellite Transponder Parameters
    • Saturation Flux Density
    • G/T
    • Saturation EIRP
    • Transponder Padding
    • Transponder Bandwidth
    • Transponder Footprint
    • Satellite Inclination
  • Performing Link Budgets for Bent-pipe Satellites
    • Determining Total C/N on a Link
    • Determining EIRP for Bandwidth-limited Operation
    • Performing Detailed Uplink/Downlink Power Budgets
    • Putting It All Together:  Link Budget Exercises
  • Ka-band and Processing Satellites
    • Processing Satellites:  Pros and Cons
    • Link Budgets for Processing Satellite
    • Ka-band and the Future of Geosynchronous Satellites
  • Wrap-up: Course Recap, Q/A, and Evaluations
Course Overview

Course in a Nutshell

In this comprehensive, five-day workshop on satellite communications, you will acquire an in-depth understanding of the technical aspects of earth station design, link budget analysis, and deployment. Each module of this course builds upon the previous modules, culminating in complete performance analysis of a satellite network based on equipment specifications, system configuration, and satellite parameters. Using calculator exercises and Excel spreadsheets (which are included with the course), we  will make sure that you have a detailed, practical, and hands-on understanding of all of the important aspects of SATCOM design.

 

Customize It!

  • Depending on your degree of current knowledge of SATCOM systems, we can omit certain topics, resulting in a shorter course.
  • The course can similarly be expanded to accommodate additional topics of interest or to include more detailed discussion of or added exercises related to certain topics.
  • It can also be tailored to the needs of your system, commercial or military.

 

Learn How To

  • Develop a system design based on communications requirements and limitations.
  • Select system components, based on their specifications, to satisfy system requirements.
  • Perform detailed EIRP and G/T analysis.
  • Establish proper signal levels for optimum performance.
  • Select the proper access technique based on system requirements and network topology.
  • Perform availability analysis based on required fade margin, equipment reliability, and sparing strategy.
  • Perform detailed end-to-end link budget analysis based on system limitations and equipment parameters.

 

Audience / Prerequisites

Aimed At

Participants with some background in telecommunications whose work requires a comprehensive workshop on satellite communications.

 

Prerequisites

Technical background and general exposure to telecommunications networks.

 

Testimonials
  • "A one word wrap-up of the course would be "outstanding." Ron was very knowledgeable ... this course would've been overwhelming given the timeline but with an outstanding instructor and course layout it wasn't ... everyone thought that the course was well worth it. Too often we end up taking courses with instructors who haven't walked the walk and can't talk the talk but Ron was on point. We really appreciate ... everyone here benefited from it. Thanks again." – Joshua Wellman, Team Leader, US Army
  • “Lots of information, good content, lots of hands-on. Instructor knowledge is spot-on. This is exactly what you need. Very very informative … make this a required weeklong course for employees in all groups. Kudos!” – TD, Sr. Tech, Major US Satellite Operator
  • "Comprehensive coverage of topic, examples from past experience, actual calculations during class. Course book very detailed with answers filled out." – Jessica Remert, Communications Systems Engineer, NASA
  • “Liked course content, instructor, Excel sheets, and supporting content. Instructor very well knowledged, very smart/bright guy, taught with good energy. Excellent detail, well taught. Everything properly laid out: The books, disc, Power Point were all well designed. By my 2nd training day, I had informed all my friends in the field about the course. I give this course a 10/10.” – SS, Sr. Controller, Major US Satellite Operator